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Bitter Melon Cultivation

Posted Saturday, January 15, 2022 ( 5 months ago)

Last updated: January 17th, 2022

Scientific name: Momordica charantia
Family: Cucurbitaceae
Order: Cucurbitales
Kingdom: Plantae

Bitter melon is a very popular vegetable and is botanically known as Momordica charantia. It belongs to the genus Cucurbitaceae. Due to its medicinal properties, Bitter melon has recently attracted a lot of interest.

Suitable climatic requirements for Bitter melon cultivation

It can be successfully cultivated up to 1200 m above sea level.

Management Soil

  • Organic matter rich, well-watered
  • Descending soil is preferable. To be in the soil
  • The required pH value is 5.5 - 7.5.

Seed requirement for Bitter melon cultivation

6 kg per hectare.

The gap

1.5 m x 1 m

Preparation of land for Bitter melon cultivation

Dig the soil to a depth of 20-30 cm and crush the pebbles. Pits 30x30x30 cm in size Fill in the gaps properly and fill with decomposed organic manure and topsoil.

Irrigation for Bitter melon cultivation

Water whenever necessary to maintain proper soil moisture so that it is sufficient for cultivation. Unnecessary accumulation of water in the soil is detrimental to the crop. In dry seasons, mulching around the vines will prevent the soil from drying out too quickly.

Weed control in Bitter melon cultivation

When the seedlings are young, uproot the weeds near the pits. Remove weeds at a later stage so as not to damage the roots.

Pest control for Bitter melon cultivation

Melon fly

A melon fly can be damaged at any stage of embryonic development. melon fly Females lay eggs in holes in the surface. The larvae that hatch cause the pods to rot due to the damage they do by eating the flesh inside the pods.

control

  • Destruction of crop residues remaining in the previous season.
  • Removal of other host plants around the plantation (Kowakka, Labu, Drought Fences)
  • Insect population control using cleome pheromone traps. About 04 traps should be placed per acre.
  • Damaged pods are packed in a black polythene bag and tied in the sun or buried deep.
  • Cover as much fruit as possible. For this, you can use thin polythene, thick paper, or cloth. The polythene cover should be about 6 inches longer than the fruit. Its lower end should be left open.

Insect protein bait / spinosadicide

400 ml of water should be mixed at the rate of 20 ml / 16 liters of water. Apply this mixture at a rate of 200-400 per hectare for commercial cultivation. For home gardens make 25 ml of the above mixture at the rate of 1 liter of water. Apply 200-400 ml of the spray mixture in one place on the underside of the stalks every 5-7 days between 7-9 am until the onset of flowering and the end of harvest. If washed away by rain, spray again.

Downy Mildew

Downy Mildew appears on the leaves. These spots then turn brown. Gray-white fungal spores occur on the underside of the scalp. Apply a recommended fungicide for this.

Fungicides Dissolve in 10 liters of water
Mancozeb 64% + Metalaxyl 8% WP 12.5g
Metiram 55% + Pyraclostrobin 5% WG 20g
Azoxystrobin 250g / 1SC 10 ml
Kresoxim methyl 500g / 1 SC 14ml

Powdery mildew

It is a disease that can be contracted during periods of high ambient temperature. Patient scabs are yellow. White spores can be seen on both sides of the leaf.
Recommended fungicides for this

Fungicides Dissolve in 10 liters of water
Flutriafol 25‍% SC Concentration Oil, 25% 10 ml
Potassium bicarbonate 82% powder 15g
Cabrio Top 20g
Krescxim methyl 500g/EC 14 ml

Mosaic virus

The Mosaic Virus disease is spread by aphids. A green and yellow streak appears on the leaves. The diseased leaf rolls and deforms. The growth of the vines is poor. The plant is stunted. Remove and destroy diseased vines as soon as you see them. Control of aphids controls the spread of the disease. Apply the recommended insecticides every 10 to 12 days from the time of planting until the onset of harvest.

Recommended insecticides for this

Insecticides Dissolve in 10 liters of water
Buprofezin 10% wp 9.6g
Sulfoxaflor 50 WG 4.8g
Pymetrozine 50% WG 8g
Abamectin 18g/l Ec 9.6 ml
Profenofos 50% EC 48ml

 

Harvesting of bitter gourd cultivation
Harvest the pods when they are well grown. The first harvest is 60-75 days after planting. After that about 10 - 14 harvests can be obtained once in 4 days.d once in 4 days.

Harvest of Bitter melon cultivation

The yield is about 20 tons per hectare. Pack and send to market without damaging the spikes.